The agreement, by which President Monroe set the limits of armament on the Great Lakes in 1817, was an early example of the development of executive contracts. The agreement was reached through an exchange of notes, which was submitted nearly a year later to the Senate as to whether it was under the power of the President or whether Council and Senate approval were required. The Senate approved the agreement by the required two-thirds majority and it was immediately promulgated by the President, without there being a formal exchange of ratifications.469 Of a type like this, and especially thanks to the status of commander-in-chief, a number of agreements were concluded with Mexico between 1882 and 1896, Granting the right to each country, 470 Coming to such an agreement, the court noted with some uncertainty: «While no act of Congress authorizes the executive service to authorize the introduction of foreign troops, the power to grant such authorization without legislative authorization was likely accepted by the president`s authority as commander-in-chief of the U.S. military and maritime forces. It is doubtful, however, whether this power can be extended to the arrest of deserters [of foreign ships] if there is no positive legislation to that effect. 471 Justice Gray and three other judges held that such a presidential action should be based on an explicit treaty or statute.472 1823, the Reciprocity of Duties Act was passed, which significantly supported British carry trade and allowed for the reciprocal removal of import duties under bilateral trade agreements with other countries. In 1846, the Corn Laws, which had imposed restrictions on grain imports, were abolished and, until 1850, most protectionist measures for British imports were abandoned. In addition, the Cobden Chevalier Treaty between Great Britain and France set significant reciprocal tariff reductions. It also contained a most-favoured-nation (MFN) clause, a non-discriminatory policy that requires countries to treat all others equally when it comes to trade. This treaty helped to trigger a number of agreements of the greatest tranquility in the rest of Europe and to initiate the growth of multilateral trade liberalization or free trade. The GATT held eight sessions between April 1947 and December 1993. .