Political dialogue with Japan began in 1990 and since then the Alliance has gradually strengthened its contacts with countries that are not involved in any of these cooperative initiatives. [114] In 1998, NATO established a set of general guidelines that do not allow for the formal institutionalization of relations, but reflect Allies` desire to strengthen cooperation. After much debate, the term «contact country» was endorsed by Allies in 2000. In 2012, the Alliance expanded this group, which meets as «Partners Worldwide» or «Global Partners» to discuss issues such as anti-piracy and technology exchanges. [115] [116] Australia and New Zealand, two contact countries, are also members of the AUSCANNZUKUS strategic alliance, and similar regional or bilateral agreements between contact countries and NATO members also support cooperation. NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg said NATO must «deal with the rise of China» by working closely with Australia, New Zealand, Japan and South Korea. [117] Colombia is NATO`s youngest partner and Colombia has access to all cooperation activities that NATO offers to its partners. Colombia was the first and only country in Latin America to cooperate with NATO. [118] The North Atlantic Council (NSA) is NATO`s main decision-making body. Each Member State shall have its seat on the CNA. It meets at least once a week or whenever necessary, at different levels.

It is chaired by the Secretary-General, who assists members in reaching agreement on key issues. www.nytimes.com/2018/06/26/world/europe/trump-nato-summit-g-7.html www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/trump-says-germanyis-captive-to-russia-in-fiery-opening-salvo-against-nato/2018/07/11/56aa7174-7f0a-11e8-a63f-7b5d2aba7ac5_story.html?utm_term=.def944cb5150 In order to put an end to Slobodan Milošević`s Serbian action against KLA separatists and Albanian civilians in Kosovo, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1199, in which it calls for a ceasefire. Negotiations under US Special Envoy Richard Holbrooke failed on 23 March 1999 and he handed the matter over to NATO,[38] which began a 78-day bombing campaign on 24 March 1999. [39] Operation Allied Force targeted the military capabilities of the Then Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. During the crisis, NATO also sent one of its international intervention forces, the ACE Mobile Force (Land), to Albania under the name Albanian Force (AFOR) to provide humanitarian assistance to refugees from Kosovo. [40] The hostilities that had shaped relations between the Soviet and Western powers since 1917 gradually reappeared at the end of World War II. This «East-West» divide has been fuelled by conflicting political interests and ideologies. Disputes over peace agreements and reparations ensued, and tensions were exacerbated by events such as the Berlin blockade in April 1948, the coup in Czechoslovakia in June 1948, and direct threats to the sovereignty of Norway, Greece and Turkey. European countries, on the other hand, wanted to make sure that the United States would come to their aid if one of the signatories was attacked. The U.S. refused to make that promise, believing that U.S.

public opinion would not follow, so it proposed an option that would allow each country to help the other signatories «as necessary.» In other words, there would be no automatic declaration of war or obligation on the part of the Member States to engage militarily; the measures to be taken shall be taken by each Member State. In the end, the U.S. view of collective defense prevailed. www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/opinions_124507.htm www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2015/11/nato-paris-attack-article-5/416097/ The result of these in-depth negotiations was the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949.